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Anatomy of the Human Body: Knowing Human Organ Systems



iHealth Buzz - natomy of the human body is the study of the structure of the human body. Anatomy of the human body is composed of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems. The organ system is the part that makes up the human body. This system consists of various types of organs, which have special structures and functions. Organ systems have unique structures and functions. Each organ system is interdependent, both directly and indirectly.

1. Frame system



The human body is supported by a skeletal system, which consists of 206 bones connected by tendons, ligaments, and cartilage. These bones are arranged by axial and appendicular skeletons.

The axial skeleton consists of 80 bones located along the axis of the human body. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, middle ear bones, hyoid bones, ribs, and spine.

The appendicular skeleton consists of 126 bones which are complementary bones that connect the axial skeleton. The appendicular framework is located in the area of ​​the upper limbs, lower limbs, pelvis, and shoulders.

The function of the skeletal system is to move, support and give shape to the body, protecting internal organs, and as a place for attaching muscles.

2. Muscle system



The muscular system consists of around 650 muscles which help with movement, blood flow, and other bodily functions.

There are three types of muscles namely skeletal muscle that is connected with bone, smooth muscle found in the digestive organs, and heart muscle found in the heart and helps pump blood.

3. Circulatory system



The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and about 5 liters of blood carried by blood vessels. The circulatory system is supported by the heart, which is only the size of a closed fist. Even at rest, the average heart easily pumps more than 5 liters of blood throughout the body every minute.

The circulatory system has three main functions, namely:

Circulate blood throughout the body. Blood provides essential nutrients and oxygen and removes waste and carbon dioxide to be excreted from the body. Hormones are transported throughout the body through blood plasma fluid.
Protect the body through white blood cells by fighting pathogens (germs) that have entered the body. Platelets function to stop bleeding when injured and prevent pathogens from entering the body. Blood also carries antibodies that provide specific immunity to pathogens that have been previously exposed to the body or have been vaccinated.
Maintaining homeostasis (balance of body conditions) in several internal conditions. Blood vessels help maintain a stable body temperature by controlling blood flow to the surface of the skin.

4. Digestive system



The digestive system is a group of organs that work to receive food, convert and process food into energy, absorb nutrients found in food into the bloodstream, and remove the remaining food that is left or cannot be digested by the body.

Food passes through the digestive tract which consists of the oral cavity, pharynx (throat), larynx (esophagus), stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and ends in the anus.

Besides the digestive tract, there are several important accessory organs in the anatomy of the human body that help digest food. Accessory organs of the digestive system include teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.

5. Endocrine system

The endocrine system consists of several glands that secrete hormones into the blood. These glands include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, and genital gland (gonads).

The gland is controlled directly by stimulation of the nervous system and also by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands.

By regulating the function of organs in the body, this gland helps maintain body homeostasis. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are one of many hormonal processes.

6. Nervous system



The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all the nerves that connect these organs to other parts of the body. These organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication between its parts.

The brain and spinal cord form a control center known as the central nervous system. Sensory nerves and sensory organs of the peripheral nervous system monitor conditions inside and outside the body and transmit central nervous system information. The efferent nerves in the peripheral nervous system carry signals from the control center to muscles, glands, and organs to regulate their function.

7. Respiratory system



Cells of the human body need oxygen flow to stay alive. The respiratory system provides oxygen to the cells of the body while releasing carbon dioxide and waste products that can be deadly if allowed to accumulate.

There are three main parts of the respiratory system: the airways, lungs, and respiratory muscles. The airways include the nose, mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. This channel carries air through the nose to the lungs.

The lungs function as the main organs of the respiratory system by exchanging oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide leaving the body.

Respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, work together to pump, push air in and out of the lungs while breathing.

8. Immune System

The immune system is the body's defense against bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens that may be dangerous, by protecting and attacking these pathogens.

These include lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, lymphocytes (including B cells and T cells), thymus, and leukocytes, which are white blood cells.

9. Lymphatic System



In human anatomy, the lymphatic system includes lymph nodes, lymphatic ducts, and lymph vessels, and also plays a role in the body's defenses.

Its main task is to make and move lymph, clear fluids containing white blood cells, which help the body fight infection.

The lymphatic system also removes excess lymph fluid from body tissues, and returns it to the blood.

10. Urinary and excretory system

The excretion system secretes waste materials that are no longer needed by humans. In the anatomy of the human body, the organs of excretion consist of the kidneys, liver, skin, and lungs.

The urinary or urinary system is included in the excretory system which consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. The kidneys filter blood to remove waste and produce urine. The urethra, bladder and urethra together form the urinary tract, which functions as a system to drain urine from the kidneys, store it, and then release it during urination.

In addition to filtering and removing waste from the body, the urinary system also maintains water, ion, pH, blood pressure, calcium, and red blood cell homeostasis.

The liver functions to expel bile, the skin functions to sweat, while the lungs function in releasing water vapor and carbon dioxide.

11. Reproductive system

Male reproductive system
The reproductive system allows humans to reproduce. The male reproductive system includes the penis and testicles, which produce sperm.

Women's reproductive system
The female reproductive system consists of the vagina, uterus and ovaries, which produce the ovum (egg). During fertilization, sperm cells meet with eggs in the fallopian tube. The two cells then carry out fertilization which is implanted and grows in the uterine wall. If not fertilized, the lining of the uterus that has thickened to prepare for pregnancy will decay into menstruation.

12. Integumentary system

The skin or integument system is the largest organ in the anatomy of the human body. This system protects it from the outside world, and is the body's first defense against bacteria, viruses and other pathogens. The skin also helps regulate body temperature and removes waste products through sweat. In addition to the skin, the integument system includes hair and nails.

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